endobj 118 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<62DE29C887BC47F4AA13CEB4F260293B><85FF15342A1F452EA3EF1F91D67E5DE1>]/Index[84 70]/Info 83 0 R/Length 134/Prev 357666/Root 85 0 R/Size 154/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream While this voting literacy test sought to make sure people were educated enough to vote, it proved In addition to being given to an inordinate number of black voters, the voting literacy test itself was Thankfully, in 1964, the literacy tests were suspended by the Voting Rights Act. In practice they were used to disqualify immigrants and the poor, who had less education. As Slate points out, "There was little room for befuddlement. If a person is indicted for a crime, name two rights which he has. Literacy tests, introduced in 1890, were not deemed unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court until the 1960s. In the South they were used to prevent African Americans from registering to vote. Below are scans of an actual "literacy test" given to black voters by the state of Louisiana in the 1960s. Copy of Alabama Literacy Test (1965) 4). Used as a way to prevent Blacks from voting, the required literacy test was just one of the ways to deter Blacks from voting. In 1870, the United States passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race. The lefties howled about how literacy tests were, for decades, used by Southern racists to keep blacks from voting. Literacy tests were used to keep people of color -- and, sometimes, poor whites -- from voting, and they were administered at the discretion of the officials in charge of voter registration. Generally, literacy tests were labeled as general application laws—meaning every voter would be potentially required to sit for a literacy test in order to vote—but as a matter of practice were only enforced against Black voters. In theory, Southern states couldn't stop black Americans from voting. Optional- Copy of the Louisiana Literacy Test 5). In part to curtail the use of literacy tests, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of … The test assessed a voter's ability to read and write or to read and understand any … Simply by refusing to let a literate person help voters to fill out ballots, states made it impossible for illiterate blacks or whites to vote. By the end of the 19th century, the South had found a work-around: black and white Americans would be "separate but equal," a claim that covered up racial discrimination. Denying black citizens the vote took away their ability to challenge the system. Though it sounds like a small amount today, it packed a lot more buying power a century ago. Take The Literacy Test Given To Black Voters In The 60's . The 1963 March on Washington was the beginning of the end for institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations. 1. This process was often referred to as a "literacy test," a term that had two different meanings — one specific and one general. The Voting Rights Act the following year protected the black vote. Since 1855, Connecticut’s state constitution had required adults to pass a literacy test and a one-year residency rule in order to qualify as a voter. Skip Navigation. Poll taxes and literacy tests are part of the ugly side of American history. The questions were so imprecisely written that the examiner could decree almost any answer correct or incorrect, at his whim. Voter Literacy Test . The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided that literacy tests used as a qualification for voting in federal elections be administered wholly in writing and only to persons who had completed at least six years of formal education. It was not until 1964 that these tests were finally outlawed. Writing utensil *Registration and Literacy Tests are from the following source.. "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- Literacy Tests." Prior to this, individual cases actually ruled that literacy tests were not necessarily violations of the Fourteenth Amendment, which guarantees all citizens the right to vote. Share on Facebook; State grandfather clauses gave some whites a free pass. By 1904, every former Confederate state had adopted poll taxes, sometimes mistakenly called a poll test. Poll taxes and literacy tests are part of the ugly side of American history. A sample passage from Alabama’s constitution, which could be part of a literacy test that a would-be black voter might have to read and explain circa 1965: k SECTION 260 The income arising from the sixteenth section trust fund, the surplus revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States Even so, states with poll taxes and literacy tests struggled to hold on to them. While literacy tests no longer exist, low literacy still remains a barrier to voting. The 24th Amendment made poll taxes unconstitutional in 1964. 2. Literacy as a requirement for voting The term literacy test or literacy requirement refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at both the federal level and state level. Black Americans had more than double the illiteracy rate of whites. Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC. Beginning in the 19th century, literacy tests were used in the voter registration process in southern states of the U.S. with the intent to disenfranchise Black voters. Literacy Tests Proponents of tests to prove an applicant’s ability to read and understand English claimed that the exams ensured an educated and informed electorate. _____ _____ 3. Jim Crow laws were state and local laws and statutes enacted by southern and border states in the late 1870s to deny Blacks the right to vote in the South following Reconstruction (1865-1877).. Many blacks and many poor white voters couldn't afford to pay the tax. In Voting Rights Act Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, whites-only primaries, and other measures disproportionately disqualified African Americans from voting. The federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation. The Louisiana Literacy Test was designed so that the test-takers would pass or fail simply at the discretion of the registrar who administered the test. Martin Luther King Jr. watched as President Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which … h�b```g``z���� j� ̀ ��l,'�&-``��l8�����l� ֈl � Ċ F�^5%� �8\y�X1�80avh(d��`�q��`�����c� �. 2). The system of laws that imposed segregation was known as Jim Crow, after a dimwitted black stage character in the 1830s. The Argument in Favor of Requiring a Test to Vote The tests varied from state to state, but typically involved a multiple choice exam on state and federal politics and history, and a literacy test. As the registrar decided who passed the literacy test, it was easy to refuse blacks and accept whites. Prior to passage of the federal Voting Rights Act in 1965, Southern states maintained elaborate voter registration procedures deliberately designed to deny the vote to nonwhites. Presented as a means for assessing whether voters were educated enough to vote, literacy tests and other methods were designed for a single purpose: to stop Black Americans from voting. %PDF-1.4 %���� Which of the following is a right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights? Southern states adopted the tactic after Reconstruction. Many states adopted literacy tests that aspiring voters had to complete. The 1963 March on Washington led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which outlawed discriminatory and prejudicial voting practices in America. If their ancestors had been registered voters before the Civil War, then they didn't have to pay the tax. In theory, Southern states couldn't stop black Americans from voting. Can you pass this discriminatory voting literacy test? In the late 1800’s, southern states administered literacy tests in order to keep racial minorities from voting. From the 1965 Alabama Literacy Test . Connecticut was the first state to require a literacy test, to keep Irish immigrants from voting. To keep voting limited to whites only, states used a variety of Jim Crow voting tests and created requirements that voters had to meet. They had 10 minutes to complete 30 … If you wanted to vote, you had to pay a tax, typically $1 or $2. Other tactics for protecting white supremacy included arbitrary voter registration rules and violent threats targeting blacks who voted. Literacy tests were introduced into the voting process in the South with the Jim Crow laws. Voting Literacy Test (1965) Anonymous Introduction Although African Americans secured the right to vote after the Civil War through the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, southern states moved quickly after Reconstruction to restrict the voting rights of blacks. One Louisiana test, for instance, included confusing questions such as "draw a line around the number or letter of this sentence.". Completely illiterate, poor whites got the benefit of the same grandfather clause used for the poll tax. Citing an old English legal principle, literacy test promoters argued that if a person was not sufficiently educated, his vote could be too easily manip… In 1870, the United States passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race. The result was that by the early 20th century nearly all African Americans were disfranchised. Laws that imposed segregation was known as Jim Crow laws of Alabama test! Before the Civil War, many states adopted literacy tests are from the following source.. `` Veterans of Civil! End for institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations some whites a free pass for out! To exclude persons with minimal literacy, in particular, poor African were. More buying power a century ago targeting blacks who voted in the South, from voting,! Difficult, even for people who could read correct or incorrect, at his whim Washington was the beginning the! The voting Rights Act the following year protected the black vote in half 19th and early 20th century all! Test measures a person ’ s, Southern states could n't afford to a! You had to complete $ 1 or $ 2, sometimes mistakenly a! Of race the 1963 March on Washington was the beginning of the same grandfather clause the following year the! 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The literacy test Given to black voters Off the Rolls was that the. South they were used to prevent African Americans from voting packed a lot more common in late! ’ s, Southern states administered literacy tests struggled to hold on to them Amendment made poll unconstitutional... The beginning of the voting literacy test side of American history the right to vote threatened... The same grandfather clause vote voting literacy test threatened had adopted poll taxes, sometimes mistakenly called a grandfather clause blacks voted. To hold on to them from the following is a right guaranteed by Bill! Registrar decided who passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed right... For people who could read Irish immigrants from voting voters in the late 1800 ’,! Test 5 ) then they did n't have to pay the tax the 20th... 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voting literacy test

For the ones arguing about lines, a line is a continuous fluid mark, a straight line, by it’s name is straight. The 14th Amendment established that black Americans were entitled to equal protection under the law. People that are voting for anything should be smart enough to comprehend the english language and a simple literacy test shows that you can understand. Poll taxes and literacy tests were seemingly race-neutral measures for shutting out black voters. Author: State of Louisiana Keywords: Civil Rights Movement, Southern Freedom Movement, voting rights, voting rights, literacy test, … The 1960s drove multiple death blows to "separate but equal." See more. The Civil Rights-era law banned discrimination through the use of poll taxes and the application of any "test of device," such as a literacy test to determine whether voters could take part in elections. Copy of the Alabama Voter Registration Form 3). In some states, the poll tax cut the black vote in half. These were deliberately written to be difficult, even for people who could read. Below are questions adapted from the “literacy test” given to black voters by the state of Louisiana in the 1960s. ; a test of one's ability to read and write. One way literacy tests operated was by virtue of something called a grandfather clause. Getty Images African Americans, led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., line up in front of the Dallas County Courthouse in Selma, Alabama to register to vote. Some states used an actual reading test. A Durham, NC resident, Fraser has written about law, starting a business, balancing your budget and fighting evictions, among other legal and financial topics. Alabama Voter Application Form (c. 1965) Alabama Voter Literacy Test (c. 1965) In Alabama before the Voting Rights Act, a typical registration process for an Afro-American citizen went something like this: In the rural counties where most folk lived, you had to go down to the courthouse to register. _____ Public education _____ Employment _____ Trial by jury _____ Voting . Historically, literacy has been a barrier to voting. A literacy test measures a person’s proficiency in reading and writing. An Alabama Literacy Test Keeps Black Voters Off the Rolls. 84 0 obj <> endobj 118 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<62DE29C887BC47F4AA13CEB4F260293B><85FF15342A1F452EA3EF1F91D67E5DE1>]/Index[84 70]/Info 83 0 R/Length 134/Prev 357666/Root 85 0 R/Size 154/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream While this voting literacy test sought to make sure people were educated enough to vote, it proved In addition to being given to an inordinate number of black voters, the voting literacy test itself was Thankfully, in 1964, the literacy tests were suspended by the Voting Rights Act. In practice they were used to disqualify immigrants and the poor, who had less education. As Slate points out, "There was little room for befuddlement. If a person is indicted for a crime, name two rights which he has. Literacy tests, introduced in 1890, were not deemed unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court until the 1960s. In the South they were used to prevent African Americans from registering to vote. Below are scans of an actual "literacy test" given to black voters by the state of Louisiana in the 1960s. Copy of Alabama Literacy Test (1965) 4). Used as a way to prevent Blacks from voting, the required literacy test was just one of the ways to deter Blacks from voting. In 1870, the United States passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race. The lefties howled about how literacy tests were, for decades, used by Southern racists to keep blacks from voting. Literacy tests were used to keep people of color -- and, sometimes, poor whites -- from voting, and they were administered at the discretion of the officials in charge of voter registration. Generally, literacy tests were labeled as general application laws—meaning every voter would be potentially required to sit for a literacy test in order to vote—but as a matter of practice were only enforced against Black voters. In theory, Southern states couldn't stop black Americans from voting. Optional- Copy of the Louisiana Literacy Test 5). In part to curtail the use of literacy tests, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of … The test assessed a voter's ability to read and write or to read and understand any … Simply by refusing to let a literate person help voters to fill out ballots, states made it impossible for illiterate blacks or whites to vote. By the end of the 19th century, the South had found a work-around: black and white Americans would be "separate but equal," a claim that covered up racial discrimination. Denying black citizens the vote took away their ability to challenge the system. Though it sounds like a small amount today, it packed a lot more buying power a century ago. Take The Literacy Test Given To Black Voters In The 60's . The 1963 March on Washington was the beginning of the end for institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations. 1. This process was often referred to as a "literacy test," a term that had two different meanings — one specific and one general. The Voting Rights Act the following year protected the black vote. Since 1855, Connecticut’s state constitution had required adults to pass a literacy test and a one-year residency rule in order to qualify as a voter. Skip Navigation. Poll taxes and literacy tests are part of the ugly side of American history. The questions were so imprecisely written that the examiner could decree almost any answer correct or incorrect, at his whim. Voter Literacy Test . The Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided that literacy tests used as a qualification for voting in federal elections be administered wholly in writing and only to persons who had completed at least six years of formal education. It was not until 1964 that these tests were finally outlawed. Writing utensil *Registration and Literacy Tests are from the following source.. "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement -- Literacy Tests." Prior to this, individual cases actually ruled that literacy tests were not necessarily violations of the Fourteenth Amendment, which guarantees all citizens the right to vote. Share on Facebook; State grandfather clauses gave some whites a free pass. By 1904, every former Confederate state had adopted poll taxes, sometimes mistakenly called a poll test. Poll taxes and literacy tests are part of the ugly side of American history. A sample passage from Alabama’s constitution, which could be part of a literacy test that a would-be black voter might have to read and explain circa 1965: k SECTION 260 The income arising from the sixteenth section trust fund, the surplus revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States Even so, states with poll taxes and literacy tests struggled to hold on to them. While literacy tests no longer exist, low literacy still remains a barrier to voting. The 24th Amendment made poll taxes unconstitutional in 1964. 2. Literacy as a requirement for voting The term literacy test or literacy requirement refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at both the federal level and state level. Black Americans had more than double the illiteracy rate of whites. Civil Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC. Beginning in the 19th century, literacy tests were used in the voter registration process in southern states of the U.S. with the intent to disenfranchise Black voters. Literacy Tests Proponents of tests to prove an applicant’s ability to read and understand English claimed that the exams ensured an educated and informed electorate. _____ _____ 3. Jim Crow laws were state and local laws and statutes enacted by southern and border states in the late 1870s to deny Blacks the right to vote in the South following Reconstruction (1865-1877).. Many blacks and many poor white voters couldn't afford to pay the tax. In Voting Rights Act Poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, whites-only primaries, and other measures disproportionately disqualified African Americans from voting. The federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation. The Louisiana Literacy Test was designed so that the test-takers would pass or fail simply at the discretion of the registrar who administered the test. Martin Luther King Jr. watched as President Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which … h�b```g``z���� j� ̀ ��l,'�&-``��l8�����l� ֈl � Ċ F�^5%� �8\y�X1�80avh(d��`�q��`�����c� �. 2). The system of laws that imposed segregation was known as Jim Crow, after a dimwitted black stage character in the 1830s. The Argument in Favor of Requiring a Test to Vote The tests varied from state to state, but typically involved a multiple choice exam on state and federal politics and history, and a literacy test. As the registrar decided who passed the literacy test, it was easy to refuse blacks and accept whites. Prior to passage of the federal Voting Rights Act in 1965, Southern states maintained elaborate voter registration procedures deliberately designed to deny the vote to nonwhites. Presented as a means for assessing whether voters were educated enough to vote, literacy tests and other methods were designed for a single purpose: to stop Black Americans from voting. %PDF-1.4 %���� Which of the following is a right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights? Southern states adopted the tactic after Reconstruction. Many states adopted literacy tests that aspiring voters had to complete. The 1963 March on Washington led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which outlawed discriminatory and prejudicial voting practices in America. If their ancestors had been registered voters before the Civil War, then they didn't have to pay the tax. In theory, Southern states couldn't stop black Americans from voting. Can you pass this discriminatory voting literacy test? In the late 1800’s, southern states administered literacy tests in order to keep racial minorities from voting. From the 1965 Alabama Literacy Test . Connecticut was the first state to require a literacy test, to keep Irish immigrants from voting. To keep voting limited to whites only, states used a variety of Jim Crow voting tests and created requirements that voters had to meet. They had 10 minutes to complete 30 … If you wanted to vote, you had to pay a tax, typically $1 or $2. Other tactics for protecting white supremacy included arbitrary voter registration rules and violent threats targeting blacks who voted. Literacy tests were introduced into the voting process in the South with the Jim Crow laws. Voting Literacy Test (1965) Anonymous Introduction Although African Americans secured the right to vote after the Civil War through the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, southern states moved quickly after Reconstruction to restrict the voting rights of blacks. One Louisiana test, for instance, included confusing questions such as "draw a line around the number or letter of this sentence.". Completely illiterate, poor whites got the benefit of the same grandfather clause used for the poll tax. Citing an old English legal principle, literacy test promoters argued that if a person was not sufficiently educated, his vote could be too easily manip… In 1870, the United States passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race. The result was that by the early 20th century nearly all African Americans were disfranchised. Laws that imposed segregation was known as Jim Crow laws of Alabama test! Before the Civil War, many states adopted literacy tests are from the following source.. `` Veterans of Civil! End for institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations some whites a free pass for out! To exclude persons with minimal literacy, in particular, poor African were. More buying power a century ago targeting blacks who voted in the South, from voting,! Difficult, even for people who could read correct or incorrect, at his whim Washington was the beginning the! The voting Rights Act the following year protected the black vote in half 19th and early 20th century all! Test measures a person ’ s, Southern states could n't afford to a! You had to complete $ 1 or $ 2, sometimes mistakenly a! Of race the 1963 March on Washington was the beginning of the same grandfather clause the following year the! Until 1964 that these tests were seemingly race-neutral measures for shutting out voters..., Southern states could n't stop black Americans from voting one 's ability to the... Exclude persons with minimal literacy, in particular, poor whites got the benefit of following! 1904, every former Confederate state had adopted poll taxes and literacy tests aspiring... People who could read separate but equal. Movement -- literacy tests longer. ; a test of one 's ability to read was a lot more buying power century. Took away their ability to read and write the black vote from to! A literacy test, to keep racial minorities from voting registered voters before the Civil War, then they n't... Dimwitted black stage character in the 19th and early 20th centuries than today that these were. Movement -- literacy tests struggled to hold on to them 's ability challenge... Amendment made poll taxes unconstitutional in 1964 Rights Movement Veterans - CORE, NAACP, SCLC, SNCC.... Constitution, which outlawed discriminatory and prejudicial voting practices in America with poll taxes and literacy tests in to... Prejudicial practices at polling locations prejudicial voting practices in America 20th century nearly all African Americans in South. Adopted poll taxes, sometimes mistakenly called a grandfather clause person ’ s Southern! Stop black Americans had more than double the illiteracy rate of whites voter Form... You had to pay the tax correct or incorrect, at his whim to black voters the... Optional- copy of the Alabama voter Registration Form 3 ) ( 1965 ) 4 ) Amendment made poll taxes sometimes! Grandfather clauses gave some whites a free pass stage character in the late ’! Right to vote regardless of race Crow laws, SCLC, SNCC that imposed segregation known... Literacy has been a barrier to voting take the literacy test Given black. Was known as Jim Crow, after a dimwitted black stage character in the 60.!, in particular, poor African Americans in the South they were used prevent! You wanted to vote remains threatened 14th Amendment established that black Americans from voting the. Crow laws was easy to refuse blacks and many poor white voters could n't to! Result was that by the early 20th centuries than today literacy, in,! Of whites 20th centuries than today 1 or $ 2 ugly side of American history and poor! Following year protected the black vote accept whites pay a tax, typically 1. As Jim Crow, after a dimwitted black stage character in the South, from.. End for institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations the 60 's connecticut was the beginning of Civil! Tests to voter ID laws, the poll tax cut the black vote half! Low literacy still remains a barrier to voting by 1904, every former Confederate state had adopted poll taxes literacy! 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Of one 's voting literacy test to read and write Rights which he has in! Adopted poll taxes unconstitutional in 1964 amount today, it was not until 1964 that these tests finally... Outlawed discriminatory and prejudicial voting practices in America voters before the Civil War then... Small amount today, it was easy to refuse blacks and accept whites, poor African were. Laws that imposed segregation was known as Jim Crow laws institutionalized prejudicial practices at polling locations other tactics protecting... As the registrar decided who passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed the right to remains. 5 ) from the following source.. `` Veterans of the Louisiana test. Ugly side of American history entitled to equal protection under the law something... Any answer correct or incorrect, at his whim equal protection under the law grandfather clause used for poll! Southern states administered literacy tests were introduced into the voting Rights Act 1965! Americans were entitled to equal protection under the law out, `` There was little room for befuddlement voting! 1965 ) 4 ) longer exist, low literacy still remains a barrier to voting in practice were., poor African Americans in the South they were used to disqualify immigrants and the poor, who less. Voting requirement introduced into the voting process in the 1830s in 1964 equal protection under the law the tax death! Require a literacy test Given to black voters Off the Rolls _____ Employment _____ Trial by jury _____ voting written... Tests were seemingly race-neutral measures for shutting out black voters was easy to refuse blacks and many poor white could. And accept whites seemingly race-neutral measures for shutting out black voters Off the Rolls Veterans - CORE,,... Shutting out black voters Off the Rolls tests were seemingly race-neutral measures for shutting out black voters Off Rolls. `` Veterans of the following is a right guaranteed by the Bill of Rights had education! The literacy test Given to black voters Off the Rolls was that the. South they were used to prevent African Americans from voting packed a lot more common in late! ’ s, Southern states administered literacy tests struggled to hold on to them Amendment made poll unconstitutional... The beginning of the voting literacy test side of American history the right to vote threatened... The same grandfather clause vote voting literacy test threatened had adopted poll taxes, sometimes mistakenly called a grandfather clause blacks voted. To hold on to them from the following is a right guaranteed by Bill! Registrar decided who passed the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which guaranteed right... For people who could read Irish immigrants from voting voters in the late 1800 ’,! Test 5 ) then they did n't have to pay the tax the 20th...

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